Three Awesome Months
Posted by bsstahl on 2019-02-26 and Filed Under: event
The next few months are going to be absolutely amazing. We've got some great events coming up in March and April right here in the Valley of the Sun. In addition, I currently have 4 conferences scheduled in 4 different countries on 2 continents.
AZGiveCamp IX - Presented by Quicken Loans - March 8th-10th
The most important occasion coming up is the 9th AZGiveCamp Hackathon of Help. This year, we're very fortunate to have Quicken Loans presenting our event and hosting it at their new facility in downtown Phoenix. At AZGiveCamp, Arizona's finest technologists will put their skills to work creating software for some great local charity organizations. We help them help our community by using our skills to create tools that help them further their mission.
Visual Studio 2019 Arizona Launch - April 16th
Another fun event for developers in the valley is the Visual Studio 2019 Arizona Launch event being hosted at Galvanize. We'll have some great speakers talking about how Visual Studio 2019 is a more productive, modern, and innovative environment for building software.
Around the World
In March, I'll be visiting opposite ends of the east coast of North America.
First, on March 2nd, I'll be attending the always amazing South Florida Code Camp in Fort Lauderdale. This event is right up there with the biggest community conferences in the country and is always worth attending. This will be the 7th year I've presented at SoFlaCC. If you're in the area I hope you'll attend.
Later in March, I cross the border into Canada to attend ConFoo Montreal. This will be my first trip ever to Montreal so I hope the March weather is kind to this 35 year Phoenix resident. The event runs from March 13th - 15th and there will be 2 Canadiens games during the time I am there so I should be able to get to at least one of them.
In May I get to do a short tour of Europe, spending 2 weeks at conferences in Budapest, Hungary (Craft Conference), and Marbella, Spain (J on the Beach). While I have done some traveling in Europe before, I have never been to Spain or Hungary so I am really looking forward to experiencing the history and culture that these two cities have to offer.
Keep up With Me
I maintain a list of my presentations, both past and upcoming, on the Community Speaker page of this blog. I also try to document my conference experiences on Twitter @bsstahl. If you are going to be attending any of these events, please be sure to ping me on Twitter and let me know.
On the Shoulders of Giants
Posted by bsstahl on 2018-03-11 and Filed Under: general
I recently gave my very first Toastmasters speech. I’m rather proud of it. It certainly didn’t go perfectly but was a good introduction to Toastmasters for me, and a good introduction of me to my Toastmasters club.
For those who aren’t familiar with the process, everyone’s 1st Toastmaster speech is called an Icebreaker and is a way to introduce a new Toastmaster to the other members of the club. In my Icebreaker, I chose to introduce myself to my club by talking about just a few of the people who I feel made important historical contributions that paved my path to today.
The transcript and video of this presentation can be found below.
I like to describe myself as the kind of person who has a list of his favorite physicists and favorite mathematicians. The thought being that just knowing I have such a list tells you everything you really need to know about me. Today I'd like to tell you a little bit more about me, to go a little bit deeper, and tell you about me by telling you about just a few of the people on my list and why I find them so fascinating and so important.
We start in ancient Greece in the 4th century BCE. Democritus of Abdura develops a theory of the composition of matter in the universe that is based on what he calls "atoms". These atoms are physically indivisible, always in motion, and have a lot of empty space in between. He is the first person to develop a theory like this, of the creation of the universe and the existence of the universe in a way that is explainable, that is predictable, that we can understand. As such, may people consider him to be the first scientist. It is this reasoning, that the universe is knowable, that has made all technological advancement that we've had since, possible.
One such advancement came in 1842 so let's jump forward from the first scientist to the first computer programmer. Charles Babbage has created his Analytical Engine, and Ada, Countess of Lovelace, translates an article on using that machine to calculate the Bernoulli numbers which was a well known mathematical sequence. She created notes on this article that describes the inputs and instructions and the states of all the registers of the machine at each point in the process. This, deservingly so, is considered to be the first ever computer program. But more than even creating the first program, Ada Lovelace recognized the capabilities of these machines. She recognized that they could be more than just machines that analyze numbers, they could analyze anything that could be represented by numbers. She predicted that they could be used to compose music, create graphics, and even be usable in scientific experiments. This recognition of the computer as a general purpose tool, rather than just as a fancy calculator, is what made all of society's advancements that were based on computers and computer processing, possible.
There are many other people on my list that I'd like to talk about: Nicola Tesla and Alan Turing; Grace Hopper and Albert Einstein.
But there are really two modern physicists that played a greater role than any in my path to today. The first of those is Carl Sagan. Dr. Sagan had the ability to communicate in a very accessible way his almost childlike awe and wonder of the cosmos. He combined the resources and knowledge of a respected scientist with the eloquence of a teacher and a poet, and made science and scientific education available to an entire generation as it never had been before.
Perhaps the most significant reason though that Carl Sagan has become important to me, especially in the last few years, is that he reminds me, quite powerfully, of number one on my list, my favorite physicist of all, my father Hal Stahl, who passed away on this very day, two years ago. Dad's specialty was optics, he loved to play with light and its properties. He also loved math and its power to explain the concepts in physics. Like my father I love how math, especially calculus, make the calculations of practical things feasible. So much so, that had I recognized the power of physics combined with calculus, before I learned to make computers do my bidding, my career might have taken a slightly different path.
I hope I have given you a few insights into my worldview through the lens of those I idolize. I like to think that my list shows the value I place on education, especially STEM. It also shows that I recognize the value of collaboration and understand how much of what we do depends on those who came before us. Isaac Newton famously stated, "If I have seen farther [than others] it is by standing on the shoulders of giants." My list of the giants on whose shoulders I stand can be found on Twitter @bsstahl. To me that list represents just a few of the many without whom our work and our world would not be possible.
Video: On the Shoulders Of Giants
Simplify Your API
Posted by bsstahl on 2015-10-12 and Filed Under: development
If you are building an API for other Developers to use, you will find out two things very quickly:
- Developers don't read documentation (you probably already know this).
- If your API depends on its documentation to get developers to understand and discover its features, it is likely that it will not be used.
Fortunately, there are some simple mechanisms for wrapping complex APIs and making their functionality both easy to use, and highly discoverable. An API that uses tools like IntelliSense in Visual Studio to make its features discoverable by the downstream developer is far more likely to be adopted then one that doesn't. In recent years, additions to the C# language have made creating a Domain Specific Language that uses a fluent syntax for nearly any API into a simple process.
Create the Context
The 1st step in simplifying any API is to provide a single starting point for the downstream developer to interact with. In most cases, the best practice is to use the façade pattern to define a context that holds our entity collections. Each collection of entities becomes a property on the context object. These properties all return an IQueryable<Entity>. For example, in the EnumerableStack demo solution on GitHub (https://github.com/bsstahl/SimpleAPI), I created an object Bss.EnumerableStack.Data.EnumerableStack to provide this functionality. It has two properties, Posts and Questions, each of which returns an IQueryable<Post>. It is these properties that will be used to access the data from our API.
The context object, on top of becoming the single point of entry for downstream developers, also hides any complexities in the construction logic of the underlying data source. That is, if there is any configuration or other setup required to access the upstream data provider (such as web service access or database connections), much of the complexity of that construction can be hidden from the API user. A good example of this can be seen in the FluentStack demo solution from the same GitHub repository. There, the Bss.FluentStack.Data.OData.FluentStack context object wraps the functionality of constructing the connection to the StackOverflow OData web service.
Extend Our Language
Now that we have data to access, it's time for us to extend our domain specific language to provide tools to make accessing this data simpler for the API caller. We can use Extension methods on IQueryable<Entity> to create custom filters for our data. By creating extension methods that accept IQueryable<Entity> as a parameter and return the same, we can create methods that can be chained together to form a fluent syntax that will perform complex filtering. For example, in the EnumerableStack solution , the Questions, WithAcceptedAnswer and TaggedWith methods found in the Bss.EnumerableStack.Data.Extensions module, can all be used to execute queries on the data exposed by the properties of our context object, as shown below:
var results = new EnumerableStack().Posts.WithAcceptedAnswer().TaggedWith("odata");
In this case, both the WithAcceptedAnswer and TaggedWith filters are applied to the data. The best part about these methods are that they are visible in Intellisense (once the namespace has been brought into scope with a Using statement) making the functionality easy to discover and use.
Another big advantage of creating these extension methods is that they can hide the complexity of the lower level API. Here, the WithAcceptedAnswer method is wrapping a where clause that filters for those posts that have an AcceptedAnswerId property that is non-null. It may not be obvious to a downstream API consumer that the definition of a post with an "accepted answer" is one where the AcceptedAnswerId has a value. Our API hides that implementation detail and allows the consumer to simply request what is needed. Similarly, the TaggedWith method hides the fact that the StackOverflow API stores tags in lower-case, within angle-brackets, and with all tags on a post joined into a single string. To search for tags, the consumer would need to know this, and take all appropriate actions when searching for a tag if we didn't hide that complexity in the TaggedWith method.
Simplify Query Predicates
A predicate is a function that accepts an entity as a parameter, and returns a boolean value. These functions are often used in the Where clause of a query to indicate which objects should be included in the result set. For example, in the query below
var results = new EnumerableStack().Posts.Where(p => p.Parent == null);
the function expression p => p.Parent == null is a predicate that returns true if the Parent property of the entity is null. For each entity passed to the function, the value of that property is tested, and if null, the entity is included in the results of the query. Here we are using a Lambda Expression to provide a delegate to our function. One of the coolest things about Linq is that we can now represent this expression in a variable of type Expression<Func<Entity, bool>>, that is, a Lambda expression of a function that takes an Entity and returns a boolean. This is pretty awesome because if we can store it in a variable, we can pass it around and enable extension methods like this one, as found in the Asked class of the Bss.EnumerableStack.Data library:
public static Expression<Func<Post, bool>> InLast(TimeSpan span)
return p => p.CreationDate > DateTime.UtcNow.Subtract(span);
This method accepts a TimeSpan object and returns the Lambda Expression type useable as a predicate. The input TimeSpan is subtracted from the current DateTime UTC value, and compared to the CreationDate property of a Post entity. If the creation date of the Post is later than 30-days prior to the current date, the function returns true. Since this InLast method is static on a class called Asked, we can use it like this:
var results = new EnumerableStack().Questions.Where(Asked.InLast(TimeSpan.FromDays(30));
Which will return questions that were asked in the last 30 days. This becomes even simpler to understand if we add a method extending Int called Days that returns a Timespan, like this:
public static TimeSpan Days(this int value)
allowing our expression to become:
var results = new EnumerableStack().Questions.Where(Asked.InLast(30.Days());
Walking through the Process
In my conference sessions, Simplify Your API: Creating Maintainable and Discoverable Code, I walk through this process on the FluentStack demo code. We take a query created against the StackOverflow OData API that starts off looking like this:
var questions = new StackOverflowService.Entities(new Uri(_serviceRoot))
.Posts.Where(p => p.Parent == null && p.AcceptedAnswerId != null
&& p.CreationDate > DateTime.UtcNow.Subtract(TimeSpan.FromDays(30))
and convert it, one step at a time, to this:
var questions = new FluentStack().Questions.WithAcceptedAnswer()
a query that is much simpler, easier to understand, easier to create and easier to maintain. The sample code on GitHub, referenced above, and available at https://github.com/bsstahl/SimpleAPI, contains the FluentStack.sln example which shows how to simplify an API created with an OData source. It also contains the EnumerableStack.sln project which walks through the same process on a purely enumerable data source, that is, an implementation that will work with any collection.
Have you used these tools to simplify an API for downstream programmers? Do you have other techniques that you use to do the same, similar, or additional things to make your APIs better? If so, Tweet it to me @bsstahl and let's keep the conversation going.